Home » Islamic Events: Dates in Hijri and Spiritual Guidance

Islamic Events: Dates in Hijri and Spiritual Guidance

Islamic events serve as the heartbeats of the Islamic calendar, resonating with the rich tapestry of history, faith, and devotion. These milestones, rooted in the life and teachings of Prophet Muhammad, provide Muslims around the world with moments of deep spiritual connection. They are more than mere celebrations; they are profound acts of worship, opportunities for reflection, and reminders of the collective journey of the Muslim community.

From the awe-inspiring Isra and Mi’raj, when the Prophet Muhammad embarked on a miraculous night journey to the heavens, to the annual pilgrimage to the sacred city of Mecca, these events encapsulate the essence of Islam. They speak of divine revelations, resilient faith, and the unifying power of community. In this exploration, we will embark on a journey through the Islamic calendar, delving into the sacred significance and compelling narratives that have shaped the lives of over a billion Muslims worldwide. These events are not just chapters in history; they are the stars that continue to illuminate the path of Islamic heritage

These moments are significant, passed down through generations, and are an essential part of the Islamic calendar. These celebrations capture the essence of Islam, sharing stories of divine revelations, faith, and unity among Muslims. They are like bright stars in the Islamic story, guiding believers on their spiritual journey.

Islamic Event NameDate
Islamic New Year1st Muharram
Migration of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) to Medina1st Muharram
Martyrdom of Umar ibn al-Khattab1st Muharram
Martyrdom of Imam Hussain10th Muharram 61 AH
Battle of Karbala10th Muharram 61 AH
Ashura10th Muharram 61 AH
Arbaeen40 days after Ashura
Martyrdom of Imam Hassan28th Safar 50 AH
Milad un-Nabi12th Rabi-ul-Awal
Martyrdom of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq22nd Jumada al-Thani 13AH
The birth of Imam Ali13th Rajab
Mi’raj/Isra/Shab-e-Miraj27th Rajb
Birth of Imam Hussain3rd of Sha’ban
Bara’at/Shab-e-Baraat15th of Sha’ban
Start of the holy month of Ramadan1st Ramadan
Birth of Imam Hassan15th Ramadan
The Battle of Badr17th Ramadan 2AH
The Conquest of Mecca20th Ramadan 8 AH
Prophet Muhammad’s first revelation, the beginning of the QuranRamadan
Martyrdom of Ali ibn Abi Talib21st of Ramadan 40(AH)
Laylat ul Qadr: Laylat al-QadrOdd day in last 10 days of Ramadan
Eid ul Fitr1st Shawwal
Battle of Uhud3rd Shawwal 3(AH)
The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah6th Dhul-Qadah (6AH)
HajjDhul-Hijjah from the 8th to the 12th
Arafat Day9th Dhul-Hijjah
Farewell Sermon/Hijatul Widaa9th Dhul-Hijjah
Eid-ul-Adha10th Dhul-Hijjah
Martyrdom of Uthman ibn AffanOdd day in the last 10 days of Ramadan

Islamic Events List:

1. Islamic New Year

The Islamic calendar 1st Muharram, also known as the Hijri or Lunar calendar, was officially introduced during the time of the second caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him), in the year 17 AH (After Hijra).
The calendar was initiated to mark the years since the migration (Hijra) of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) from Mecca to Medina, which occurred in the year 1 AH. This event is considered the starting point of the Islamic lunar calendar, and it took place in the year 622 CE in the Gregorian calendar.

2. Migration of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) to Medina

The migration of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred on the 1st of Muharram in the year 1 AH (After Hijra). It was a response to persecution in Mecca and marked the beginning of the Islamic lunar calendar. The Prophet’s arrival in Medina established the first Islamic community.

3. Martyrdom of Umar ibn al-Khattab

The martyrdom of Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him), the second caliph of Islam, occurred on the 1st of Muharram in the year 24 AH (After Hijra)/27th of Dhu al-Hijjah, 23 AH.
Umar was assassinated while leading the morning prayer in Medina. His martyrdom is a significant event in Islamic history, marking the end of his caliphate and his immense contributions to the early Muslim community. Umar’s leadership is remembered for its wisdom, justice, and expansion of the Islamic state.

4. Martyrdom of Imam Hussain

The martyrdom of Imam Hussain ibn Ali (may Allah be pleased with him), the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), occurred on the 10th of Muharram in the year 61 AH (After Hijra).
This event is known as the Battle of Karbala, where Imam Hussain and his loyal companions were martyred. It is a tragic and significant event in Islamic history, especially for Shia Muslims, who commemorate it during the annual observance of Ashura. Imam Hussain’s stand at Karbala symbolizes resistance against oppression and tyranny and upholding the principles of justice and truth.

5. Battle of Karbala

The Battle of Karbala took place on the 10th of Muharram in the year 61 AH (After Hijra). It was a pivotal and tragic battle between Imam Hussain, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), and the Umayyad forces led by Yazid. Imam Hussain’s stand symbolizes resistance against oppression and upholding the principles of justice and truth.

6. Ashura

Ashura, the 10th day of Muharram, holds significance in Islam. Sunni Muslims fast to commemorate the saving of Moses from Pharaoh. Shia Muslims mourn on this day, remembering the Battle of Karbala and the martyrdom of Imam Hussain, symbolizing justice and resistance against oppression. Ashura emphasizes key Islamic values.

7. Arbaeen

Arbaeen is a significant Shia Muslim observance held 40 days after Ashura, commemorating the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. Millions of pilgrims visit Karbala, Iraq, during this time, engaging in rituals and expressing solidarity with the values of justice and resistance against oppression exemplified by Imam Hussain. It’s one of the world’s largest peaceful gatherings.

8. Martyrdom of Imam Hassan

The martyrdom of Imam Hassan ibn Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) occurred on the 28th of Safar in the year 50 AH (After Hijra). He was the eldest grandson of the Prophet Muhammad and is recognized for his commitment to peace and reconciliation.
Imam Hassan’s martyrdom is a significant event in Islamic history, marking his contributions to unity and justice within the Muslim community.

9. Milad un-Nabi

Milad un-Nabi, also known as Mawlid al-Nabi, is the observance of the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) which is the 12th of Rabi-ul-Awal. It is a significant event in Islam, marking the birth of the final prophet and messenger.
The specific date of Milad un-Nabi varies because it is based on the Islamic lunar calendar. Sunni and Shia Muslims may celebrate it on different dates, and the observance can range from quiet reflections on the Prophet’s life to festive gatherings with prayers, recitations, and feasts.

10. Martyrdom of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq

Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, the first caliph of Islam and one of the closest companions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), passed away peacefully in the year 13 AH (After Hijra). His death occurred on the 22nd of Jumada al-Thani in the Islamic calendar.
Abu Bakr’s legacy is celebrated for his unwavering support of the Prophet and his pivotal role in the early expansion of Islam. His leadership and commitment to the faith are remembered with great reverence in Islamic history.

11. The birth of Imam Ali

Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him), the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), was born on the 13th of Rajab in the Islamic calendar. The exact Gregorian date equivalent to his birth can vary, but it is estimated to be around the year 600 CE.
Imam Ali is a revered figure in Islam, known for his wisdom, courage, and close relationship with the Prophet Muhammad. His birth is a celebrated event in Islamic tradition.

12. Mi’raj/Isra/Shab-e-Miraj

The Isra and Mi’raj is a significant event in Islam, representing the Prophet Muhammad’s miraculous night journey and ascension to the heavens. It is traditionally believed to have occurred on the 27th day of the Islamic month of Rajab. This event underscores the Prophet’s unique role and the spiritual ascent of the soul.

13. Birth of Imam Hussain

Imam Hussain ibn Ali (may Allah be pleased with him), the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, was born on the 3rd of Sha’ban in the Islamic calendar. The exact Gregorian date equivalent to his birth varies, but it is estimated to be around the year 626 CE.
Imam Hussain is a revered figure in Islam, known for his stand for justice and truth, particularly during the events of the Battle of Karbala. His birth is celebrated in Islamic tradition.

14. Bara’at/Shab-e-Baraat

Bara’at, observed on the night between the 14th and 15th of Sha’ban, is a significant night in Islam marked by prayers, seeking forgiveness, and acts of charity. It holds spiritual importance for Muslims worldwide.

15. Start of the holy month of Ramadan

The holy month of Ramadan begins with the sighting of the new moon, which marks the first day of the ninth month in the Islamic lunar calendar. The exact Gregorian date for the start of Ramadan varies each year because the Islamic calendar is based on the lunar cycle.
It’s a month of fasting, prayer, reflection, and increased devotion for Muslims around the world, during which they abstain from food and drink from dawn (Suhoor) until sunset (Iftar) as an act of worship and self-discipline. The beginning of Ramadan is determined by the lunar calendar and local moon sightings, so the specific date may differ each year and from one region to another.

16. Birth of Imam Hassan

Imam Hassan ibn Ali (may Allah be pleased with him), the eldest son of Imam Ali and Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, there are many different sources but the widely accepted date is that he was born on the 15th of Ramadan in the Islamic calendar.
The exact Gregorian date equivalent to his birth varies, but it is estimated to be around the year 625 CE. Imam Hassan holds a special place in Islamic history and is respected for his character and contributions to the early Muslim community. His birth is celebrated by Muslims, particularly during the month of Ramadan.

17. The Battle of Badr

The Battle of Badr is a pivotal event in Islamic history, The exact date, however, has been a subject of some debate and variations in historical accounts. The most commonly accepted date for the Battle of Badr is the 17th of Ramadan 2AH.
This date is widely recognized and reported in many historical sources. It marked a significant victory for the early Muslim community, led by the Prophet Muhammad, against the Quraysh of Mecca, emphasizing the principle of justice prevailing over oppression.

18. The Conquest of Mecca

The Conquest of Mecca occurred on the 20th of Ramadan in 8 AH (January 11, 630 CE), led by the Prophet Muhammad. It marked the peaceful liberation of Mecca and is celebrated for its message of reconciliation and the spread of Islam.

19. Prophet Muhammad’s first revelation, the beginning of the Quran

Prophet Muhammad’s first revelation, which marked the beginning of the Quran, took place during the month of Ramadan. It is a pivotal event in Islamic history, but the specific date within Ramadan is not mentioned in historical records.
The revelation occurred in the Cave of Hira near Mecca when the Angel Gabriel (Jibril) delivered the first verses of the Quran to the Prophet Muhammad. This event initiated the prophethood of Muhammad and the gradual revelation of the Quran over the course of approximately 23 years.

20. Martyrdom of Ali ibn Abi Talib

The martyrdom of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, there are variations in Islamic traditions, and some Sunni sources may mention alternative dates, such as the 19th or 21st of Ramadan in different years.
The widest perspective is on the 21st of Ramadan in the Islamic calendar in the year 40 AH (After Hijra). Ali is a revered figure in Islam and holds a significant place in Islamic history. His martyrdom is commemorated as a solemn event by Muslims, particularly within the Shia tradition.

21. Laylat ul Qadr: Laylat al-Qadr

The Night of Decree, falls within the last ten nights of Ramadan, with the 27th night widely observed. It’s a night of great spiritual significance, marked by intense prayers, Quran recitation, and seeking forgiveness. It is believed to be when the Quran was first revealed to Prophet Muhammad, and it holds blessings and guidance for the future.

22. Eid ul Fitr

Eid ul-Fitr, the festival marking the end of Ramadan, is celebrated on the first day of Shawwal in the Islamic lunar calendar. It’s a time for communal prayers, generosity, new clothes, special meals, and giving to those in need.

23. Battle of Uhud

The Battle of Uhud, occurring on the 3rd of Shawwal in the 3rd year after the Hijr and was a pivotal event in early Islamic history. It marked a test of faith and the importance of discipline, unity, and following orders.

24. The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, signed on the 6th of Dhul-Qadah in the 6th year after the Hijra, was a pivotal diplomatic agreement between the Prophet Muhammad and the leaders of Mecca. It brought a peaceful truce and highlighted the importance of diplomacy and compromise in Islamic history.

25. Hajj

Hajj is the annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, a religious obligation for capable Muslims. It involves specific rituals performed during the Islamic month of Dhul-Hijjah, symbolizing unity, devotion, and spiritual reflection.
Hajj takes place during the Islamic month of Dhul-Hijjah, from the 8th to the 12th of the month. The specific dates within the Gregorian calendar vary each year because the Islamic calendar is lunar-based. Therefore, the corresponding Gregorian dates change annually.

26. Arafat Day

Arafat Day is the 9th day of Dhul-Hijjah in the Islamic lunar calendar. It is the focal day of the Hajj pilgrimage, where pilgrims gather at the plain of Arafat for prayer and supplication. This day is marked by deep spiritual reflection and unity among Muslims. The specific Gregorian date changes each year.

27. Farewell Sermon/Hijatul Widaa

The Farewell Sermon was delivered by the Prophet Muhammad on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah in the 10th year after the Hijra (March 7, 632 CE). It emphasized unity, equality, and ethical principles, making it a cornerstone of Islamic teachings.

28. Eid-ul-Adha

Eid ul-Adha, the Festival of Sacrifice, is celebrated on the 10th day of Dhul-Hijjah in the Islamic lunar calendar. It commemorates Prophet Ibrahim’s willingness to sacrifice his son in obedience to God. Muslims perform ritual sacrifices and share the meat with family and those in need, followed by special prayers and festive gatherings. The corresponding Gregorian date varies annually.

29. Martyrdom of Uthman ibn Affan

The martyrdom of Uthman ibn Affan, the third Caliph of Islam, occurred on the 18th of Dhul-Hijjah, 35 AH. It was a significant event in early Islamic history and had far-reaching consequences.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Islamic events are not just dates on a calendar. They are powerful moments of faith, unity, and remembrance. From the miraculous journey of Isra and Mi’raj to the pilgrimage to Mecca, these events are a testament to divine revelations, strong faith, and community strength.

They are shared stories that inspire and guide over a billion Muslims worldwide. These events, from the birth of Imam Hassan to the stand of Imam Hussain, hold a special place in the hearts of believers and remind them of the core values of Islam. These events are the stars in the tapestry of Islamic history, shining with faith, unity, and devotion.

FAQs

How do Muslims determine the dates of Islamic events since the Islamic calendar is lunar-based?

Islamic events are determined based on the lunar Islamic calendar. The specific dates in the Gregorian calendar vary each year and may be influenced by local moon sightings or astronomical calculations.

How do Muslims commemorate these events?

The commemoration of these events varies. Some are celebrated with prayer, fasting, or acts of charity. Others involve gatherings, processions, or pilgrimages to specific locations. The form of commemoration depends on the specific event and Islamic tradition.

What was the first festival in Islam?

The first festival in Islam is Eid al-Fitr, celebrated at the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting. It’s a time of joy, communal prayers, feasting, and giving to those in need. The specific date varies each year based on the lunar Islamic calendar.

What is the most religious day?

The most religiously significant day in Islam is “Eid al-Adha,” the Festival of Sacrifice, commemorating Prophet Ibrahim’s obedience to God. Muslims perform Qurbani, sacrificing animals and sharing the meat. It’s marked with prayers, special meals, and charity, with the date determined by the lunar Islamic calendar.

Can you explain the significance of Imam Hussain’s martyrdom in the Battle of Karbala?

The Battle of Karbala and Imam Hussain’s martyrdom symbolize a stand for justice, truth, and resistance against oppression. It is especially significant for Shia Muslims, who commemorate it during Ashura to uphold these values.